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What is Dew, Water, Rain & Ice

What is Dew?
Dew is moisture collected from the atmosphere by the action of cold. During the day, the powerful heat of the sun causes to arise from the earth and water a moist vapor, which, after the sun sinks below the horizon, is condensed by the cold, and falls in the form of dew. Dews are more copious in the Spring and Autumn than at any other season; in warm countries than in cold ones: because of the sudden changes of temperature. Egypt abounds in dews all the summer; for the air being too hot to condense the vapors in the day-time, they never gather into clouds and form rain.

From what does the vapor originate?
Vapor is water, combined with a still greater quantity of caloric, that is, an imponderable and subtile form of matter, which causes the sensation of heat; and which, driving asunder the particles of the water, renders it aëriform.

In how many states do we find Water?
In 4 states:

fist state: solid, as in ice, snow, hail;
second state: fluid, as in its common form;
third state: aëriform, as in steam;
fourth state: in a state of union with other matter. Its most simple state is that of ice, which is water deprived of a certain portion of its caloric: crystallization then takes place, and the water becomes solid and is called ice.

Is ice the only instance of Water existing in a state of solidity?
No; it is found in a solid state in many minerals, as in marble, and is then called water of Crystallization. It is essential, in many cases, to their solidity and transparency.

What is Rain?
The condensed aqueous vapors raised in the atmosphere by the sun and wind, converted into clouds, which fall in rain, snow, hail, or mist: their falling is occasioned by their own weight in a collision produced by contrary currents of wind, from the clouds passing into a colder part of the air, or by electricity. If the vapors are more copious, and rise a little higher, they form a mist or fog, which is visible to the eye; higher still they produce rain. Hence we may account for the changes of the weather: why a cold summer is always a wet one — a warm, a dry one.